.Net Core微服务入门全纪录(七)——IdentityServer4-授权认证

前言

上一篇【.Net Core微服务入门全纪录(六)——EventBus-事件总线】中使用CAP完成了一个简单的Eventbus,实现了服务之间的解耦和异步调用,并且做到数据的最终一致性。这一篇将使用IdentityServer4来搭建一个鉴权中心,来完成授权认证相关的功能。

IdentityServer4官方文档:https://identityserver4.readthedocs.io/

鉴权中心

创建ids4项目

来到我的项目目录下执行:dotnet new is4inmem --name IDS4.AuthCenter

执行完成后会生成以下文件:

用vs2019打开之前的解决方案,把刚刚创建的ids项目添加进来:

将此项目设为启动项,先运行看一下效果:

项目正常运行,下面需要结合我们的业务稍微修改一下默认代码。

鉴权中心配置

修改Startup的ConfigureServices方法:

// in-memory, code config
builder.AddInMemoryIdentityResources(Config.IdentityResources);
builder.AddInMemoryApiScopes(Config.ApiScopes);
builder.AddInMemoryApiResources(Config.ApiResources);
builder.AddInMemoryClients(Config.Clients);

Config类:

public static class Config
{
    public static IEnumerable<IdentityResource> IdentityResources =>
        new IdentityResource[]
        {
            new IdentityResources.OpenId(),
            new IdentityResources.Profile(),
        };

    public static IEnumerable<ApiResource> ApiResources =>
        new ApiResource[]
        {
            new ApiResource("orderApi","订单服务")
            {
                ApiSecrets ={ new Secret("orderApi secret".Sha256()) },
                Scopes = { "orderApiScope" }
            },
            new ApiResource("productApi","产品服务")
            {
                ApiSecrets ={ new Secret("productApi secret".Sha256()) },
                Scopes = { "productApiScope" }
            }
        };

    public static IEnumerable<ApiScope> ApiScopes =>
        new ApiScope[]
        {
            new ApiScope("orderApiScope"),
            new ApiScope("productApiScope"),
        };

    public static IEnumerable<Client> Clients =>
        new Client[]
        {
            new Client
            {
                ClientId = "web client",
                ClientName = "Web Client",

                AllowedGrantTypes = GrantTypes.Code,
                ClientSecrets = { new Secret("web client secret".Sha256()) },

                RedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5000/signin-oidc" },
                FrontChannelLogoutUri = "http://localhost:5000/signout-oidc",
                PostLogoutRedirectUris = { "http://localhost:5000/signout-callback-oidc" },

                AllowedScopes = new [] {
                    IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.OpenId,
                    IdentityServerConstants.StandardScopes.Profile,
                    "orderApiScope", "productApiScope"
                },
                AllowAccessTokensViaBrowser = true,

                RequireConsent = true,//是否显示同意界面
                AllowRememberConsent = false,//是否记住同意选项
            }
        };
}

Config中定义了2个api资源:orderApi,productApi。2个Scope:orderApiScope,productApiScope。1个客户端:web client,使用Code授权码模式,拥有openid,profile,orderApiScope,productApiScope 4个scope。

TestUsers类:

public class TestUsers
{
    public static List<TestUser> Users
    {
        get
        {
            var address = new
            {
                street_address = "One Hacker Way",
                locality = "Heidelberg",
                postal_code = 69118,
                country = "Germany"
            };
            
            return new List<TestUser>
            {
                new TestUser
                {
                    SubjectId = "818727",
                    Username = "alice",
                    Password = "alice",
                    Claims =
                    {
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.Name, "Alice Smith"),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.GivenName, "Alice"),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.FamilyName, "Smith"),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.Email, "AliceSmith@email.com"),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.EmailVerified, "true", ClaimValueTypes.Boolean),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.WebSite, "http://alice.com"),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.Address, JsonSerializer.Serialize(address), IdentityServerConstants.ClaimValueTypes.Json)
                    }
                },
                new TestUser
                {
                    SubjectId = "88421113",
                    Username = "bob",
                    Password = "bob",
                    Claims =
                    {
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.Name, "Bob Smith"),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.GivenName, "Bob"),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.FamilyName, "Smith"),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.Email, "BobSmith@email.com"),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.EmailVerified, "true", ClaimValueTypes.Boolean),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.WebSite, "http://bob.com"),
                        new Claim(JwtClaimTypes.Address, JsonSerializer.Serialize(address), IdentityServerConstants.ClaimValueTypes.Json)
                    }
                }
            };
        }
    }
}

TestUsers没有做修改,用项目模板默认生成的就行。这里定义了2个用户alice,bob,密码与用户名相同。

至此,鉴权中心的代码修改就差不多了。这个项目也不放docker了,直接用vs来启动,让他运行在9080端口。/Properties/launchSettings.json修改一下:"applicationUrl": "http://localhost:9080"

Ocelot集成ids4

Ocelot保护api资源

鉴权中心搭建完成,下面整合到之前的Ocelot.APIGateway网关项目中。

首先NuGet安装IdentityServer4.AccessTokenValidation

修改Startup:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddAuthentication(IdentityServerAuthenticationDefaults.AuthenticationScheme)
        .AddIdentityServerAuthentication("orderService", options =>
        {
            options.Authority = "http://localhost:9080";//鉴权中心地址
            options.ApiName = "orderApi";
            options.SupportedTokens = SupportedTokens.Both;
            options.ApiSecret = "orderApi secret";
            options.RequireHttpsMetadata = false;
        })
        .AddIdentityServerAuthentication("productService", options =>
        {
            options.Authority = "http://localhost:9080";//鉴权中心地址
            options.ApiName = "productApi";
            options.SupportedTokens = SupportedTokens.Both;
            options.ApiSecret = "productApi secret";
            options.RequireHttpsMetadata = false;
        });

    //添加ocelot服务
    services.AddOcelot()
        //添加consul支持
        .AddConsul()
        //添加缓存
        .AddCacheManager(x =>
        {
            x.WithDictionaryHandle();
        })
        //添加Polly
        .AddPolly();
}

修改ocelot.json配置文件:

{
  "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/products",
  "DownstreamScheme": "http",
  "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/products",
  "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ],
  "ServiceName": "ProductService",
  ......
  "AuthenticationOptions": {
    "AuthenticationProviderKey": "productService",
    "AllowScopes": []
  }
},
{
  "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/orders",
  "DownstreamScheme": "http",
  "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/orders",
  "UpstreamHttpMethod": [ "Get" ],
  "ServiceName": "OrderService",
  ......
  "AuthenticationOptions": {
    "AuthenticationProviderKey": "orderService",
    "AllowScopes": []
  }
}

添加了AuthenticationOptions节点,AuthenticationProviderKey对应的是上面Startup中的定义。

Ocelot代理ids4

既然网关是客户端访问api的统一入口,那么同样可以作为鉴权中心的入口。使用Ocelot来做代理,这样客户端也无需知道鉴权中心的地址,同样修改ocelot.json:

{
  "DownstreamPathTemplate": "/{url}",
  "DownstreamScheme": "http",
  "DownstreamHostAndPorts": [
    {
      "Host": "localhost",
      "Port": 9080
    }
  ],
  "UpstreamPathTemplate": "/auth/{url}",
  "UpstreamHttpMethod": [
    "Get",
    "Post"
  ],
  "LoadBalancerOptions": {
    "Type": "RoundRobin"
  }
}

添加一个鉴权中心的路由,实际中鉴权中心也可以部署多个实例,也可以集成Consul服务发现,实现方式跟前面章节讲的差不多,这里就不再赘述。

让网关服务运行在9070端口,/Properties/launchSettings.json修改一下:"applicationUrl": "http://localhost:9070"

客户端集成

首先NuGet安装Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authentication.OpenIdConnect

修改Startup:

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.AddAuthentication(options =>
        {
            options.DefaultScheme = "Cookies";
            options.DefaultChallengeScheme = "oidc";
        })
        .AddCookie("Cookies")
        .AddOpenIdConnect("oidc", options =>
        {
            options.Authority = "http://localhost:9070/auth";//通过网关访问鉴权中心
            //options.Authority = "http://localhost:9080";

            options.ClientId = "web client";
            options.ClientSecret = "web client secret";
            options.ResponseType = "code";

            options.RequireHttpsMetadata = false;

            options.SaveTokens = true;

            options.Scope.Add("orderApiScope");
            options.Scope.Add("productApiScope");
        });

    services.AddControllersWithViews();
    
    //注入IServiceHelper
    //services.AddSingleton<IServiceHelper, ServiceHelper>();
    
    //注入IServiceHelper
    services.AddSingleton<IServiceHelper, GatewayServiceHelper>();
}

// This method gets called by the runtime. Use this method to configure the HTTP request pipeline.
public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, IWebHostEnvironment env, IServiceHelper serviceHelper)
{
    if (env.IsDevelopment())
    {
        app.UseDeveloperExceptionPage();
    }
    else
    {
        app.UseExceptionHandler("/Home/Error");
    }
    app.UseStaticFiles();

    app.UseRouting();

    app.UseAuthentication();

    app.UseAuthorization();

    app.UseEndpoints(endpoints =>
    {
        endpoints.MapControllerRoute(
            name: "default",
            pattern: "{controller=Home}/{action=Index}/{id?}");
    });

    //程序启动时 获取服务列表
    //serviceHelper.GetServices();
}

修改/Helper/IServiceHelper,方法定义增加accessToken参数:

/// <summary>
/// 获取产品数据
/// </summary>
/// <param name="accessToken"></param>
/// <returns></returns>
Task<string> GetProduct(string accessToken);

/// <summary>
/// 获取订单数据
/// </summary>
/// <param name="accessToken"></param>
/// <returns></returns>
Task<string> GetOrder(string accessToken);

修改/Helper/GatewayServiceHelper,访问接口时增加Authorization参数,传入accessToken:

public async Task<string> GetOrder(string accessToken)
{
    var Client = new RestClient("http://localhost:9070");
    var request = new RestRequest("/orders", Method.GET);
    request.AddHeader("Authorization", "Bearer " + accessToken);

    var response = await Client.ExecuteAsync(request);
    if (response.StatusCode != HttpStatusCode.OK)
    {
        return response.StatusCode + " " + response.Content;
    }
    return response.Content;
}

public async Task<string> GetProduct(string accessToken)
{
    var Client = new RestClient("http://localhost:9070");
    var request = new RestRequest("/products", Method.GET);
    request.AddHeader("Authorization", "Bearer " + accessToken);

    var response = await Client.ExecuteAsync(request);
    if (response.StatusCode != HttpStatusCode.OK)
    {
        return response.StatusCode + " " + response.Content;
    }
    return response.Content;
}

最后是/Controllers/HomeController的修改。添加Authorize标记:

[Authorize]
public class HomeController : Controller

修改Index action,获取accessToken并传入:

public async Task<IActionResult> Index()
{
    var accessToken = await HttpContext.GetTokenAsync("access_token");

    ViewBag.OrderData = await _serviceHelper.GetOrder(accessToken);
    ViewBag.ProductData = await _serviceHelper.GetProduct(accessToken);

    return View();
}

至此,客户端集成也已完成。

测试

为了方便,鉴权中心、网关、web客户端这3个项目都使用vs来启动,他们的端口分别是9080,9070,5000。之前的OrderAPI和ProductAPI还是在docker中不变。

为了让vs能同时启动多个项目,需要设置一下,解决方案右键属性:

Ctor+F5启动项目。

3个项目都启动完成后,浏览器访问web客户端:http://localhost:5000/

因为我还没登录,所以请求直接被重定向到了鉴权中心的登录界面。使用alice/alice这个账户登录系统。

登录成功后,进入授权同意界面,你可以同意或者拒绝,还可以选择勾选scope权限。点击Yes,Allow按钮同意授权:

同意授权后,就能正常访问客户端界面了。下面测试一下部分授权,这里没做登出功能,只能手动清理一下浏览器Cookie,ids4登出功能也很简单,可以自行百度。

清除Cookie后,刷新页面又会转到ids4的登录界面,这次使用bob/bob登录:

这次只勾选orderApiScope,点击Yes,Allow:

这次客户端就只能访问订单服务了。当然也可以在鉴权中心去限制客户端的api权限,也可以在网关层面ocelot.json中限制,相信你已经知道该怎么做了。

总结

本文主要完成了IdentityServer4鉴权中心、Ocelot网关、web客户端之间的整合,实现了系统的统一授权认证。授权认证是几乎每个系统必备的功能,而IdentityServer4是.Net Core下优秀的授权认证方案。再次推荐一下B站@solenovex 杨老师的视频,地址:https://www.bilibili.com/video/BV16b411k7yM ,虽然视频有点老了,但还是非常受用。

需要代码的点这里:https://github.com/xiajingren/NetCoreMicroserviceDemo

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